Laparoscopy enables the reproductive surgeon to perform minimally invasive surgery. The reproductive specialist can, through inserting special lenses with fiber optic light sources into the pelvis of the patient, diagnose pelvic pathology under magnification and when necessary , treat these conditions surgically without open surgery (laparotomy).
Other common conditions are ovarian cysts, tumours and tubal conditions such as peritubal adhesions, hydrosalpinx (fluid filled obstructed tubes) and previous tubal damage due to sterilization procedures, which can be reversed in some cases.
Direct visualization of the inner cervix and the endometrial cavity is possible by inserting a cayera and lens (Hysteroscope) into the uterus to diagnose and treat uterine abnormalities such as uterine septums, polyps and fibroids or benign uterine muscle tumours in the wall or cavity. These fibroids or septae may result in either infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss.